Transplantation of Bone Marrow

When bone marrow gets damaged by infection, diseases or chemotherapy, transplantation of bone marrow is essential. In this method stem cells of blood, which passes through the bone marrow, is transplanted by following the medical process. The stem cells of blood initiate the growth formation of new bone marrow by producing new blood cells. Bone marrow is a spongy and fatty tissue that creates red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Causes of bone marrow transplantation

  • For the treatment of aplastic anemia in which bone marrow does not produce new blood cells.
  • Cancers, like leukemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma are treated by this procedure.
  • Bone marrow gets damaged by making chemotherapy.
  • Treatment for congenital neutropenia, which creates recurring infections as a result of the hereditary disorder.
  • Treatment for sickle cell anemia that the hereditary disorder causing loss of red blood cells.
  • Abnormal formation of hemoglobin is introduced by thalassemia is treated by this process.

Types of bone marrow transplantation

There are two types of bone marrow transplantations are followed depending on the cause of the transplantation.

  • Autologous Transplantation: This method is adopted when the patients have healthy bone marrow. This method is performed by the patient’s own stem cells. It reduces chances of some severe complications.
  • Allogeneic Transplantation: This process is made by using the donor’s stem cells of blood which is matched genetically. This process is needed when the patient’s bone marrow has been damaged.
  • Transplantation of umbilical cord blood: This is one type of allogeneic transplantation. After the birth of a newborn baby, by removing stem cell from the umbilical cord of newborn baby, are stored in a frozen condition until the required transplantation. Perfect matching is less necessary as the stem cells are in a very immature condition.

Stem cell of the donor will be collected by following two methods.

  • Harvesting of bone marrow: This process is performed under pain-free and asleep condition by general anesthesia. The removal of bone marrow is made from a back position of both hip bones.
  • Leukapheresis: In this process, the removal of blood from a donor is made through IV line. Some part of white blood cells containing stem cells is isolated in an instrument and it will be used later for giving to the recipient. Red blood cells are given back to the donor.

Preparations for transplantation

To determine the types of bone marrow of the patient, many tests are to be followed. If there is a need for radiotherapy or chemotherapy for killing the cancerous cells or damaged bone marrow cells, it should be performed before the transplantation of fresh stem cells. Total time is taken for the transplantation is at least one week, so the patients must have to make the arrangements, like staying near the hospital, medical leaves, financial concerns etc.

The extent of matching between the donor and the recipient depends on the basis of genetic and influences the success of the transplantation of bone marrow. The status of engraftment is monitored regularly. Depending on the numerous factors, recovery of the transplantation may be within three months or one year. You can get the name of the best bone marrow transplant hospitals in India online from different websites for getting the best treatment.

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